Three-dimensional high efficiency cultivation technique of watermelon greenhouse

Three-dimensional high efficiency cultivation technique of watermelon greenhouse

In order to make full use of the space in the greenhouse and increase economic efficiency, the three-dimensional planting experiment of small watermelons was conducted for two consecutive years and it was successful. The main cultivation techniques are summarized below.

1, species selection

1 special Xiaofeng. The fruit is of high ball type or micro long ball type. The weight of single fruit is about 1.5kg. The appearance is plump and beautiful, the fruit shape is neat, the peel is very thin, the flesh is yellow, the meat is tender and crisp, sweet and juicy, and the seeds are few.

2 Xiaolan. The seeds are small and small, an improved variety of Te Xiaofeng watermelon. Extremely early maturity, the result is strong, high yield, fruit ball type or micro long ball type, skin light green with blue narrow stripe. Fruit weight 1.5-2.0kg, yellow crystal fruit.

3 red small jade. Very early, can sit melons, 3-5 per plant. Single fruit weight 1.5-2.0kg, melon skin thin, center sugar 13 degrees, suitable for greenhouses, greenhouse cultivation.

4 Huang Xiaoyu. Very precocious, strong resistance, easy to sit melon, single fruit weight 1.5-2.0kg, skin thickness of about 3mm, golden yellow pulp, center sugar 12-13 degrees, less fiber, less seeds, mature period of about 26 days, suitable Greenhouses, greenhouse cultivation.

5 beautiful. The horticultural institute of Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences bred a very early-maturing hybrid generation, and the plants grew robustly. It takes only 24-26 days from the opening of the female flower to the ripening of the fruit. The fruit is ellipsoidal and has a bright green skin. It is covered with 15-16 strips of thin strips. The melon-shaped shape is not deformed or hollow. The rind is 2-3 mm thick. Thin skin with toughness, dark pink flesh, delicate meat, sugar content of up to 13 degrees, and the small edge of the sugar gradient, excellent flavor. The fruit weight is 2.0-2.5kg, and the yield per mu is about 3000kg. Because of its small size and beautiful appearance, it is very popular among modern family consumers. Strong disease resistance, easy to set fruit, suitable for early ripening cultivation.

2, choose fertilization

Choose a site with a deep soil layer, good air permeability, loose and fertile soil, and easy drainage and irrigation.

Before the planting, the land was deeply plowed, combined with 2500kg of high quality organic fertilizer per acre, and 11kg of cake fertilizer, 50kg of diammonium phosphate and 40kg of potassium sulfate. Raise the 15cm high ridge by 75cm spacing.

3, grafting and raising seedlings

Yantai, Shandong Province, sowing in the greenhouse or greenhouse in late January, grafting nursery, the angiosperm seedlings with seedlings, early sowing than small watermelon for 3 days. Soaking before sowing first germination, gourd species soaked with 65 °C water 10min (minutes), to continue stirring, then soaked in clean water at 30 °C for 2 days, picked up and placed at 30 °C germination. The rootstock was cultivated using 9cm9cm nutrient pods and sown 1 per pod. The small watermelon seeds were soaked in water at 50°C for 12 hours and then picked up and placed at 28°C for germination. Use nutritional seedlings. Each sowing 1 grain. The temperature of the seed bed is kept at 25-28°C during the day and 15-18°C at night. Grafting method is adopted for grafting. The operation is simple and labor-saving. The survival rate can reach more than 95%. Grafting time from the scion cotyledon unearthed green to the first true leaf before appearance. After grafting, it is necessary to keep the temperature at 25-28°C during the day and 18-20°C during the night. The relative humidity of the air should be maintained at 95% or more. From 10:00 am to 3:00 pm, use a straw curtain to cover the small plastic shed on the grafted seedbed. After 3 days, the shade time can be gradually reduced, and the wind can be gradually released. After 10 days, the straw curtain is gradually removed and transferred to normal management. The temperature of the canopy is 22-25°C during the day, 15-18°C during the night, and the relative humidity of the air is about 60%. The time required for nursery is 40-45 days. After the grafted watermelon seedling grows two true leaves, it can be planted.

4, colonization

The planting density of three-dimensional cultivation was nearly twice that of plain cultivation, with a spacing of 40 cm and a row spacing of 75 cm. When the watermelon grows to 3-4 leaves, pick up the leaves in time and leave 3 uniform vines per plant.

5, three-dimensional management

Insert a stick in each vine, one solid nylon string on the root, and the other end of the string is tied to a scaffold above the stick to straighten the string. When guarana grows to 7-8 leaves, the vines are wrapped around the string and the vines grow upward. Thereafter, the melons are wound up once every 1-2 days. The number of entanglements near the ground is less, and the number of entanglements near the top of the shed is increased. When the melon vines grow to the roof, lower the vines downwards to lower the vertical height of the vines. When the height of the vines cannot be reduced, the vines will be vines through the support wire such as iron wire or bamboo culm, leaving 20cm to pick the heart.

Throughout the management process, we must do top-dressing, watering, weeding, pest control and artificial pollination, and pay attention to the removal of unnecessary side vines. Generally, in the first 10-13 leaf segments of each vine, a melon of the shape of Zhou Zheng is left. When the melon grows and weighs about 500 g, in order to prevent the melons from falling, the melons that are not straight are to be bent along the direction of Guaitian bending. Take a string for a week and drop the rabbit watermelon.

6, timely harvest

The small watermelon rind is thin and easy to crack, too much to reduce the value of the goods. Therefore, when the melon grows to maturity, it must be timely harvested. Three-dimensional cultivation of small watermelons per acre yield up to 5000kg or more than the average cultivation methods increase production by more than 80%. And improve the uniformity and sweetness of watermelon, beautiful appearance, no yin and yang, pruning, pollination, peony and other work is extremely convenient, but also to avoid the harm of underground pests on watermelon.

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